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 Tour OperatorsExcursionsEraAncient Era
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Ancient ERA

One of the very few civilizations from which enough archeological and written evidence
Survives to enable the reconstruction of a long continuous and fascinated history is that
Of Egypt. The following is a brief outline to allow a quick glance of the Chronological development
Of the Egyptian Civilization and the place certain monuments or events going to be mentioned
In our site in their historical setting

THE PRE-DYNASTIC PERIODS ‘Approx. 5000- 3100 B.C.’

The period is usually divided into three successive civilizations:
Badari ‘Began around 5000 B.C
Naqada I ‘About 4000B.C’
Naqada II ‘About 3500B.C’
Each of which contributed to the formation of Egyptian culture.

The early burials were simply shallow graves in the sand with mud-brick lining introduced
Towards the end of the period. From theses burials have been recovered funerary objects
Of pottery, stone, ivory and later copper and gold. No written language was known.


This era includes the first three dynasties ( 1st Dynasty and the 2nd Dynasty)
Following the unification of Egypt. Two main changes appear to mark
The beginning of the 1st Dynasty:
An increase in the use of writing and the founding of Memphis, which was
The country’s political capital and the economic center from that time on.

This formative period in administration art and architecture provided
The basis on which the Old Kingdom developed and flourished.

Characteristic of this time are massive mud-brick Tombs built by each King
At Abydos and Saqqara , with the evolution of Hieroglyphic witting the true
Historic era began.

THE OLD KINGDOM ‘2650-21745 B.C.’

The Old Kingdom of the Egyptian history is known as the age of the Pyramid builders.
In the 3rd Dynasty the first stone building the Step Pyramid was built by Zoser and his architect
Imhotep at Saqqara.
A major factor in the 4th – 5th Dynasties history was the solar religion, the true Pyramid is most
Probably a Solar symbol, in addition to buildings ‘The Great Pyramids of Senfru and his family
At Giza’ the 4th Dynasty produced much of the finest statuary of the old Kingdom and the scanty
Surviving reliefs inscriptions and tombs furniture are of similar quality, the burial chambers
Of the 6th Dynasty were inscribed with formula called the Pyramids Texts.
The Kingdom was a period of tremendous achievements in the architecture, sculpture, paiting
And other arts.

In the earlier Old Kingdom the Old Kingdom was strictly centralized around the King, but resident
Officials were later appointed in the provinces leading to internal and perhaps external problems
Which resulted in the collapse of the established order.


From its inception at the end of the 4th Dynasty millennium B.C Egyptian civilization had gone
From strength to strength every sphere of the arts, sciences and technology reached its zenith
With Khufu’s great monument at Giza.
The Shock of the breakdown of stability and the end of the Old Kingdom was great because
The unimaginable had happened for 140 years chaos reigned, art forms declined and civil war
Between North and South with the victory of a strong line of the princes from Upper Egypt ‘South’
At Thebes and the foundation of the Middel Kingdom by Mentuhotep II.

THE MIDDLE KINGDOM ‘2080 – 1755 B.C.’

A time of great reform followed unification, the administration was re—organized the capital
Was Moved to a central location near Memphis it was called ‘’ Lisht ’’ the site itself is likely
To have consisted of an administrative complex and royal residence together with the the Pyramids
Of Amenemhat I
And Senwosert I and associated cemeteries, the main cemetery of population remained at Memphis
The system of co-regency was practiced and from education was introduced. Agriculture
Improvements included the reclamation of land, particularly in Fayoum area.
Many Fortifications were built on the Southern borders and on the North Eastern frontiers,
And an active foreign policy was maintained in Nubia, Libya, Sinai and Syria.

This was a period of unpreceded prosperity accompanied by literary and artistic brilliance.


The lack of central control during the 13th Dynasty allowed people of Asiatic origins to gain
Power, The so-called Hyksos, Greek form derived from an Egyptian phrase meaning ‘ruler
Of foreign lands’ it’s uncertain how they achieved power. The military expertise of the Hyksos
Succeeded in overcome so rapidly any Egyptian resistance. Not only did they introduced
The horse and chariot to warfare, giving them a huge tactical advantage but they were also
Skilled archers.
The Egyptians were quick to recognize the important of these new methods of warfare and both
Bow and chariot were utilized a great deal in the conquests of the New Kingdom Pharaohs.

The Hyksos established their capital at Avaris ’ Tell El Dabaa’’ in the Eastern Delta and adopting
God Seth the local deity.

Theban Kings of the 17th Dynasty instigated opposition to the Hyksos whose expulsion was finally
Achieved by King Ahmose in the third re-unification of Egypt.

NEW KINGDOM ‘1539 – 1292 B.C.’

From the 18th till the 20th Dynasty the period was characterizes by wars. The rise of a military
Class and a new organization of the army and of internal and external administration the result
For Egypt was an expanded empire and vastly increased wealth.
All form of art reached a new peak as the result of Egypt’s wealth and no Pyramids were built
In this Period and burials were in rock – cut tombs.

Two new powers the Mitanni and the Hittites emerged in the near East in the 18th Dynasty
Queen Hatshepsut sent a famous trade expedition to Punt, Thutmosis III led numerous foreign
Campaigns with famous victory at Magiddo.

Akhenaton began a religious and cultural revolution with emphasis on Aton cult, he established
His capital at Tell El-Amarna from which this period takes its name, with Tutankhamen there was
A return to traditional beliefs.

The 19th and 20th Dynasties are referred to as the Ramassium period during which a noticeable
Political shift to the North occurred and a new capital Pi-Ramses was built in the Eastern Delta.

Of particular interest in the period are the ambitious building programs of Ramses II and his
Famous battle against the Hittites at Kadesh, the inscriptions of Mernptah which refer
To the Israelites and the wars fought by Ramses III against the Sea People

At the end of the period the Empire diminished in size and influence and the death of Ramses XI
And Semendes the governer of Tanis became King and founder of the 21st Dynasty.


Two thousands years after inception, Egyptian civilization began to slide
Downhill after achieving The giddy heights of the Old Middle and New Kingdoms.
Economically around 1000 B.C. the country was virtually bankrupt, outside
Influences became more evidence as other ancient Macedonian Greeks
Broke into the fertile Valley.

Dynasty 22 was founded by Sheshonk of Libyan origian and Confusion
Swayed back and forth even to the extent of Eypt being ruled by Nubians
In the 25th the latter dynasty ended by attacks in 671 B.C and again in 667 B.C
The new dominant power of Assyria

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